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Combining Processes

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Combining Processes
The five basic processes are often combined to produce and refine the shapes necessary for finished products. For example to fashion a cross peen hammer head a smith would start with a bar roughly the diameter of the hammer face, the handle hole would be punched and drifted, the head would be cut (punched, but with a wedge), the peen would be drawn to a wedge, and the face would be dressed by upsetting.

In the example of making a chisel, as it lengthened by drawing it would also tend to spread in width, so a smith would frequently turn the chisel-to-be on its side and hammer it back down upsetting it to check the spread and keep the metal at the correct width for the project.

As another example, if a smith needed to put a 90 degree bend in a bar and wanted a sharp corner on the outside of the bend, the smith would begin by hammering an unsupported end to make the curved bend. Then, to "fatten up" the outside radius of the bend, one or both arms of the bend would need to be pushed back into the bend to fill the outer radius of the curve. So the smith would hammer the ends of the stock down into the bend, 'upsetting' it at the point of the bend. The smith would then dress the bend by drawing the sides of the bend to keep it the correct thickness. The hammering would continue upsetting and then drawing until the curve had been properly shaped. In this case the primary operation was the bend, but the drawing and upsetting are done to refine the shape.


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